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Abstract Details

Development of new or enlarging MRI lesions outside of attacks is rare in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease
Autoimmune Neurology
S3 - Autoimmune Neurology 1: Mechanisms of Disease, Clinical Practice (1:36 PM-1:48 PM)
004
Data on new asymptomatic lesions in MOGAD is limited.
To determine the frequency of new/enlarging T2 or enhancing asymptomatic lesions in myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibody-associated-disease (MOGAD) and compare to multiple sclerosis (MS) and aquaporin-4 antibody-positive-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder (AQP4+NMOSD). 
We retrospectively identified Mayo Clinic MOGAD patients (1/1/2000-3/1/2021) with inclusion criteria of: 1)MOG-IgG positivity by live-cell-based-assay; 2)Fulfilling MOGAD criteria; 3)Follow-up non-attack MRI and prior reference MRI available without interval attacks. A neurologist/neuroradiologist reviewed follow-up T2-FLAIR (brain), T2 (spine), and T1-post-gadolinium (brain and spine) images. Demyelinating brain/spinal lesions on follow-up MRI (if present) were compared to the reference MRI to identify new/enlarging lesions. A subset of MOGAD MRI scans were compared to scans from MS and AQP4+NMOSD patients with similar interval between images. 
We included 105 MOGAD patients (median age, 31 years[range, 3-80]; 60% female) with 381 non-attack follow-up MRIs. In total, 11/381 (3%) scans had one or more new (n=10[single, 4; multiple, 6]) or enlarging (n=1) T2-lesions (brain, 10/215[5%]; spine, 1/166[0.6%]) with 6/11 (55%) enhancing; one scan (0.3%) had increased enhancement alone. The median follow-up interval between MRIs was 7 months (range, 0-133) and just 44/105 (42%) patients were on maintenance immunosuppression. When comparing a subset of MOGAD paired MRIs to MS and AQP4+NMOSD paired MRIs with similar interval between scans (median months[range]; MOGAD, 25[17-133]; MS, 22.5[7-138]; p=0.77; AQP4+NMOSD (44[6-37]; p=0.53), new brain lesions were less in MOGAD (1/25[4%]) than MS (14/26[54%], p<0.0001) but did not differ from AQP4+NMOSD (1/13[8%], p=1.0). New spinal lesions were rare (0-5%) and did not differ between groups.  
New brain MRI lesions rarely develop outside of attacks in MOGAD which differs from MS in which asymptomatic lesions develop more commonly. In contrast to MS, asymptomatic brain MRI surveillance in MOGAD may have limited utility as a surrogate biomarker of disease activity in clinical practice and for clinical trials.
Authors/Disclosures
Stephanie Syc-Mazurek (Mayo Clinic)
PRESENTER
An immediate family member of Dr. Syc-Mazurek has received personal compensation for serving as an employee of Delos Living . Dr. Syc-Mazurek has a non-compensated relationship as a Editor Resident and Fellows Section with Neurology that is relevant to AAN interests or activities.
Elia Sechi (University of Sassari) Dr. Sechi has nothing to disclose.
No disclosure on file
No disclosure on file
Karl Krecke Karl Krecke has nothing to disclose.
No disclosure on file
Jan-Mendelt Tillema (Mayo Clinic) Dr. Tillema has nothing to disclose.
Alfonso Lopez (Mayo Clinic) Dr. Lopez has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Horizon. Dr. Lopez has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Genentech .
Claudia Lucchinetti (University of De Medical School, Health Learning Blg) The institution of Dr. Lucchinetti has received research support from Biogen Idec. The institution of Dr. Lucchinetti has received research support from NIH/NINDS. The institution of Dr. Lucchinetti has received research support from National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke . The institution of Dr. Lucchinetti has received research support from National Multiple Sclerosis Society. The institution of Dr. Lucchinetti has received research support from National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences. Dr. Lucchinetti has received intellectual property interests from a discovery or technology relating to health care. Dr. Lucchinetti has a non-compensated relationship as a Member with National Institute of Neurological Disorders that is relevant to AAN interests or activities. Dr. Lucchinetti has a non-compensated relationship as a Member with Board of Directors, Association of University Professors of Neurology that is relevant to AAN interests or activities. Dr. Lucchinetti has a non-compensated relationship as a Member with Mayo Clinic Board of Trustees that is relevant to AAN interests or activities. Dr. Lucchinetti has a non-compensated relationship as a Member with Mayo Clinic Board of Governors that is relevant to AAN interests or activities.
Nicholas Zalewski (Mayo Clinic) Dr. Zalewski has nothing to disclose.
Marina Buciuc Dr. Buciuc has nothing to disclose.
M. Tariq Bhatti (Kaiser Permanente, Northern California) Dr. Bhatti has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Receptos . Dr. Bhatti has received personal compensation in the range of $0-$499 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for NIH LHON gene therapy study .
Sean Pittock (Mayo Clinic Dept of Neurology) Dr. Pittock has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Genentech, Inc.. Dr. Pittock has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Sage Therapeutics, Inc.. The institution of Dr. Pittock has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Astellas. Dr. Pittock has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Prime Therapeutics. Dr. Pittock has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for UCB. Dr. Pittock has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Roche/Genentech. The institution of Dr. Pittock has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Alexion. The institution of Dr. Pittock has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for MedImmune/Viela Bio. Dr. Pittock has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Arialys Therapeutics. The institution of Dr. Pittock has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Roche/Genentech. Dr. Pittock has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for UCB, Inc. Dr. Pittock has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Hoffman/LaRoche AG. Dr. Pittock has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Genetech. Dr. Pittock has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for F. Hofman/LaRoche. The institution of Dr. Pittock has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Alexion. The institution of Dr. Pittock has received research support from Grifols. The institution of Dr. Pittock has received research support from NIH. The institution of Dr. Pittock has received research support from Viela Bio/MedImmune/Horizon. The institution of Dr. Pittock has received research support from Alexion Pharmaceuticals. The institution of Dr. Pittock has received research support from F. Hoffman/LaRoche/Genentech. The institution of Dr. Pittock has received research support from NovelMed. The institution of Dr. Pittock has received research support from AstaZeneca. Dr. Pittock has received intellectual property interests from a discovery or technology relating to health care. Dr. Pittock has received intellectual property interests from a discovery or technology relating to health care.
Eoin Flanagan (Mayo Clinic) The institution of Dr. Flanagan has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Alexion. Dr. Flanagan has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Genentech. Dr. Flanagan has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Horizon Therapeutics. The institution of Dr. Flanagan has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Roche. Dr. Flanagan has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for Pharmacy times. The institution of Dr. Flanagan has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for UCB. The institution of Dr. Flanagan has received research support from Viela Bio. The institution of Dr. Flanagan has received research support from UCB. The institution of Dr. Flanagan has received research support from Roche. Dr. Flanagan has received publishing royalties from a publication relating to health care. Dr. Flanagan has a non-compensated relationship as a Member of medical Advisory Board with The MOG Project that is relevant to AAN interests or activities. Dr. Flanagan has a non-compensated relationship as a Editorial board member with Journal of The Neurologic Sciences that is relevant to AAN interests or activities. Dr. Flanagan has a non-compensated relationship as a Editorial board member with Neuroimmunology Reports that is relevant to AAN interests or activities. Dr. Flanagan has a non-compensated relationship as a Editorial Board Member with Neurology, Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation (N2) Journal that is relevant to AAN interests or activities.