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Abstract Details

Adaptive B-cell and T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with Multiple Sclerosis on disease modifying immunotherapy
Multiple Sclerosis
S5 - COVID and MS Basic Science (4:30 PM-4:42 PM)
006
Immunomodulatory therapy prescribed for patients with MS has been associated with decreased or absent anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin production following COVID-19 vaccination. We investigate broader adaptive immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination measuring IgG immunoglobulin production and T-cell reactivity in a small cohort. 
To expand understanding of the human immunological response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) treated with anti-CD20 monoclonal therapy and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) modulators. 
We used the Stanford Research Repository database to identify 55 MS patients by ICD10 code who were tested for B-cell and T-cell responses via SARS-CoV-2-IgG and SARS-CoV-2 Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA), respectively. 96% (53/55) of patients were fully vaccinated (98% mRNA/2% Janssen). A Chi-square test compared differences in vaccine response between 3 different disease modifying treatment (DMT) groups: anti-CD20 therapy (n=24), S1P modulators (n=11), and off DMT/other MS therapies (n=20). 

In patients on anti-CD20 therapy, 71% (17/24) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 IGRA but negative for SARS-CoV-2 IgG, among which 65% (11/17) had low CD-19 levels (0-64 cells/uL, normal 100-500 cells/uL) with normal absolute lymphocyte count (ALC). Among patients who delayed vaccination by 4-6 months following anti-CD20 therapy, 13% (3/24) expressed SARS-CoV-2-IgG. 

82% (9/11) of patients on S1P modulators showed absent SARS-CoV-2-IgG and SARS-CoV-2 IGRA responses, in association with low ALC (range 210-600 cells/uL, normal 1000-3000 cells/uL).  

95% (19/20) of patients off DMT/on other MS therapies showed positive SARS-CoV-2-IgG and SARS-CoV-2 IRGA responses.  

All vaccinated patients were assessed between 4 weeks and 6 months post-vaccination. These differential responses between treatment groups were significant (p<0.05). 

We demonstrate that among MS patients treated with anti-CD20 therapy, T-cell response was largely preserved despite greatly reduced B-cell response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. MS patients on S1P modulators demonstrated absence of both B-cell and T-cell response. The clinical correlation of this is to be determined. 
Authors/Disclosures
Anna Tomczak (Stanford)
PRESENTER
Miss Tomczak has nothing to disclose.
Julia Sumera (Stanford Neurology) Miss Sumera has nothing to disclose.
No disclosure on file
Danwei Wu (Stanford University) Dr. Wu has nothing to disclose.
Jamie McDonald (Stanford University) Dr. McDonald has nothing to disclose.
Neda Sattarnezhad (Stanford Univesrity) Dr. Sattarnezhad has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for EMD-Serono. Dr. Sattarnezhad has received research support from National MS Society.
Lucas Kipp The institution of Dr. Kipp has received research support from Biogen. The institution of Dr. Kipp has received research support from Genentech.
Christopher Lock (Stanford University) Dr. Lock has received personal compensation for serving as an employee of InterX Inc. Dr. Lock has received personal compensation for serving as an employee of Diagnose Early . Dr. Lock has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Biogen. Dr. Lock has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Sanofi . Dr. Lock has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for EMD Serono . Dr. Lock has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Alexion Pharmaceuticals. Dr. Lock has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Bristol Myers Squib. Dr. Lock has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for Biogen. Dr. Lock has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving as an Expert Witness for OGLE, WORM & TRAVIS, PLLP.
May Han (Stanford University) Dr. Han has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Roche. Dr. Han has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Arena Pharmaceuticals.
Jeffrey Dunn (Stanford University Medical Center) Dr. Dunn has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Alexion. Dr. Dunn has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Janssen. Dr. Dunn has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for BMS. Dr. Dunn has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Genzyme. The institution of Dr. Dunn has received personal compensation in the range of $0-$499 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Progentec Diagnostics.