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Abstract Details

Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD) Relapse Triggered by Secondary Syphilis: A Case Report
Autoimmune Neurology
P10 - Poster Session 10 (8:00 AM-9:00 AM)

This report represents a case of post-infections NMOSD relapse due to syphilis. 

Not applicable
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A 25-year-old woman was admitted in the emergency room with an acute onset of paresthesia in the upper and lower limbs and an electric shock sensation irradiating to both arms during neck flexion (Lhermitte's sign). She had round hyperchromic papular lesions in the palms and soles, which were painless, non-pruritic and appeared at the same time as the neurological picture. In the neurological examination, she presented sensory ataxic gait, positive Romberg maneuver, dysmetria in the finger-nose test with eyes closed, slight proximal and distal weakness in the left arm, hyperreflexia in all four limbs with bilateral Achilles clonus, apalesthesia with loss of proprioception in the hands, painful anesthesia in the right arm and painful hypoesthesia in the right foot and left leg. She had a previous history of systemic lupus erythematosus since the age of 14, and NMOSD with positive serum anti-AQP4 antibody diagnosed at the age of 23. In the current relapse, serum VDRL was 1:32, CSF was normal, and MRI showed an extensive area of increased signal in cervical cord suggesting longitudinally extensive myelitis. The diagnosis of an acute attack of NMOSD triggered by secondary syphilis (roseola syphilitic) was established. She received one dose of 2.4 million I.U. benzathine penicillin, and methylprednisolone treatment was initiated, with no positive results. Plasmapheresis was then performed, with improvement of the strength, sensibility, and coordination. 

The post-infectious acute attacks of NMOSD are represented in literature through few cases reported. The present case highlights the importance of seeking the specific etiology of an NMOSD relapse, allowing not only its treatment but also the identification and elimination of a possible underlying infectious agent.
Luiza Lima, MD
Dr. Lima has nothing to disclose.
Gustavo Schafascheck, MD (Antonio Pedro University Hospital) Dr. Schafascheck has nothing to disclose.
Carolina Braga Moura, MD (Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro) Dr. Moura has nothing to disclose.
Viviane Tavares Carvalho, MD (Federal Fluminense University) Dr. Carvalho has nothing to disclose.
Alexandra Seide Cardoso, MD (Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro) Dr. Seide Cardoso has nothing to disclose.
Vanessa Cristina Colares Lessa, MD (Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro) Dr. Colares Lessa has nothing to disclose.
Priscila Santos Mageste, MD (Fluminense Federal University) Miss Mageste has nothing to disclose.
Rodrigo Cutrim Gaudio, MD (Universidade Federal Fluminense) Dr. Gaudio has nothing to disclose.
Caroline Bittar Braune, MD (Fluminense Federal University Department of Neurology) Dr. Braune has nothing to disclose.