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Abstract Details

CNS-restricted Relapsed B-lymphoblastic Leukemia Mimicking Guillain-Barré Syndrome
Child Neurology and Developmental Neurology
P9 - Poster Session 9 (8:00 AM-9:00 AM)

Neuroleukemiosis, leukemic infiltration of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), is rare. Very few cases of isolated neuroleukemiosis, PNS leukemic infiltration without leukemia blasts in the blood or bone marrow, have been reported in pediatrics. Most cases have occurred in adults with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in remission who presented with peripheral neuropathy. Here we describe a pediatric patient presenting with isolated neuroleukemiosis masquerading as GBS.

To describe Neuroleukemiosis mimicking pediatric Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS).

Not applicable.

A 15-year-old male presented 1 month after IVIG treatment for GBS with worsening ataxia and weakness. He had a past medical history of B-ALL in remission for 8 years. Examination revealed distal greater than proximal weakness of the bilateral lower extremities, areflexia at the Achilles tendon, and 1+ patellar and upper extremity reflexes. Initial MRI brain and spine were normal, and lumbar puncture revealed increased protein with uninterpretable white count due to excessive red blood cells. Repeat MRI brain and spinal cord showed extensive enlargement of all nerve roots, enhancement of the cauda equina and portions of cranial nerve VII bilaterally. Repeat lumbar puncture with cytology revealed leukemic blast cells. Blasts were not detected in peripheral blood smear or by flow cytometry. Bone marrow biopsy was also free of blast cells, confirming the diagnosis of relapsed B-ALL restricted to the nervous system.

Neuroleukemiosis is a rare entity with typical clinical features of mono or polyneuropathy. It most often occurs in adults in remission from AML. However, neuroleukemiosis should also be on the differential for pediatric patients in remission from ALL presenting with neuropathy.

Ethan Edmondson, MD
Dr. Edmondson has nothing to disclose.
Paisley L. Pauli, DO (Baylor College of Medicine) Ms. Pauli has nothing to disclose.
Jyotinder Punia No disclosure on file
Daniel Calame, MD, PhD (Baylor College of Medicine, Child Neurology) Dr. Calame has nothing to disclose.