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Abstract Details

Longer-term (Up to 6 Years) Efficacy of Ofatumumab in People with Recently Diagnosed and Treatment-naive Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis
S31 - Multiple Sclerosis: Therapeutics and Clinical Decision Making (1:24 PM-1:36 PM)
003

Ofatumumab, a fully human anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody with a 20 mg subcutaneous monthly dosing regimen, demonstrated superior efficacy and similar safety versus teriflunomide in the Phase 3 ASCLEPIOS I/II overall population and in a subgroup of RDTN participants (diagnosed ≤3 years). Data from the ALITHIOS open-label extension study previously demonstrated sustained efficacy for up to 5 years in the overall and up to 4 years in the RDTN groups.

To assess ofatumumab’s longer-term efficacy for up to 6 years in people with recently diagnosed treatment-naive (RDTN) relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS).

These analyses (data cut-off: 25-Sep-2022 [up to 5 years]/25-Sep-2023 [up to 6 years]) include cumulative data from the RDTN subgroups randomized to ofatumumab in the core (continuous group) and those originally randomized to teriflunomide and switching to ofatumumab in ALITHIOS (switch group).

The RDTN subgroup comprised 314/301 people in the continuous/switch groups (mean age at baseline: 36.8/35.7 years; 69.1%/65.8% female; mean EDSS: 2.30/2.28). In the 5-year analyses, the RDTN continuous group sustained a low annualized relapse rate (ARR) over Years 1–5 (0.1–0.01). Marked reductions in ARR in the switch group from Year 2–3 (0.1–0.053) were sustained through Years 3–5 (0.053–0.037). T2 lesion activity was suppressed in the continuous group up to Year 5, and from Year 3–5 (annualized number of new/enlarging T2 lesions: 1.29–0.043) in the switch group. In the continuous group, the odds of achieving no evidence of disease activity (NEDA-3) increased from 89% at Year 2 to 96% at Year 5, and in the switch group from 36% to 58% at Year 2–3, reaching 90% at Year 5. Six-year results will be presented at congress.

Ofatumumab demonstrates sustained long-term efficacy in people with RDTN RMS, supporting its use early in the disease course.

Authors/Disclosures
Gabriel Pardo, MD, FAAN (Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation)
PRESENTER
Dr. Pardo has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving as a Consultant for Roche Genentech. Dr. Pardo has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving as a Consultant for Sanofi Genzyme. Dr. Pardo has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving as a Consultant for EMD Serono. Dr. Pardo has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving as a Consultant for Novartis. Dr. Pardo has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for TG Therapeutics. Dr. Pardo has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Horizon. Dr. Pardo has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for Biogen. Dr. Pardo has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for Bristol Myers Squibb. Dr. Pardo has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for EMD Serono. Dr. Pardo has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for Novartis. Dr. Pardo has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for Roche Genentech. Dr. Pardo has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for Janssen. Dr. Pardo has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for Sanofi Genzyme. Dr. Pardo has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for TG Therapeutics. Dr. Pardo has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for Horizon Therapeutics. Dr. Pardo has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for Alexion Pharmaceuticals.
Stephen L. Hauser, MD (UCSF Weill Institute for Neurosciences) Dr. Hauser has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for NGM Bio. Dr. Hauser has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Moderna. Dr. Hauser has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for BD. Dr. Hauser has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Pheno Therapeutics. Dr. Hauser has received personal compensation in the range of $0-$499 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Accure. Dr. Hauser has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Alector. Dr. Hauser has received personal compensation in the range of $0-$499 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Annexon. Dr. Hauser has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving as an officer or member of the Board of Directors for Neurona. Dr. Hauser has a non-compensated relationship as a Clinical Trial/Primary Investigator with Roche that is relevant to AAN interests or activities. Dr. Hauser has a non-compensated relationship as a Clinical Trial/Primary Investigator with Novartis that is relevant to AAN interests or activities.
Amit Bar-Or, MD, FRCPC (University of Pennsylvania) Dr. Bar-Or has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Roche Genentech. Dr. Bar-Or has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Novartis. Dr. Bar-Or has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Janssen/Actelion. Dr. Bar-Or has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Atara Biotherapeutics. Dr. Bar-Or has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Biogen. Dr. Bar-Or has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for BMS. Dr. Bar-Or has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Merk/EMD Serono. Dr. Bar-Or has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Sanofi-Genzyme. Dr. Bar-Or has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Atara Biotherapeutics. Dr. Bar-Or has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Roche/Genentech. Dr. Bar-Or has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Novartis. Dr. Bar-Or has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Merck/EMD Serono. Dr. Bar-Or has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Sanofi/Genzyme. The institution of Dr. Bar-Or has received research support from Novartis. The institution of Dr. Bar-Or has received research support from Biogen. The institution of Dr. Bar-Or has received research support from Roche/Genentech. The institution of Dr. Bar-Or has received research support from Merck/EMD Serono.
Ralf Gold, MD (Neurologische Universitaetsklinik) Dr. Gold has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving as a Consultant for Biogen . Dr. Gold has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving as a Consultant for Novartis. Dr. Gold has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving as a Consultant for Roche. Dr. Gold has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Genzyme. Dr. Gold has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Bayer Vital. Dr. Gold has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Eisai Pharamaceuticals. Dr. Gold has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Biogen. Dr. Gold has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Roche. Dr. Gold has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving as an Editor, Associate Editor, or Editorial Advisory Board Member for SAGE Publishers. Dr. Gold has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as an Expert Witness for Novartis. Dr. Gold has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as an Expert Witness for Biogen. The institution of Dr. Gold has received research support from Novartis. The institution of Dr. Gold has received research support from Biogen.
Xavier Montalban, MD, PhD, FAAN (Vall Hebron University Hospital-Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia) The institution of Dr. Montalban has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving as a Consultant for Biogen. The institution of Dr. Montalban has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving as a Consultant for Merck/ EMD Serono. The institution of Dr. Montalban has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving as a Consultant for Novartis. The institution of Dr. Montalban has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving as a Consultant for Teva. The institution of Dr. Montalban has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving as a Consultant for Hoffmann-La Roche. The institution of Dr. Montalban has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving as a Consultant for Actelion/ Janssen. The institution of Dr. Montalban has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving as a Consultant for BMS/ Celgene. The institution of Dr. Montalban has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving as a Consultant for Sanofi/ Genzyme. Dr. Montalban has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Actelion/ Janssen. Dr. Montalban has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Biogen. Dr. Montalban has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for BMS/ Celgene. Dr. Montalban has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Merck/ EMD Serono. Dr. Montalban has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Novartis. Dr. Montalban has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Hoffmann-La Roche. Dr. Montalban has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Sanofi-Genzyme. The institution of Dr. Montalban has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Immunic Therapeutics. The institution of Dr. Montalban has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Viatris/ Mylan. The institution of Dr. Montalban has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Sandoz. The institution of Dr. Montalban has received research support from Biogen. The institution of Dr. Montalban has received research support from Hoffmann-La Roche. The institution of Dr. Montalban has received research support from Sanofi/ Genzyme. The institution of Dr. Montalban has received research support from Merck/ EMD Serono. The institution of Dr. Montalban has received research support from Novartis. The institution of Dr. Montalban has received research support from Teva Pharmaceuticals. The institution of Dr. Montalban has received research support from Actelion/ Janssen. The institution of Dr. Montalban has received research support from BMS/ Celgene.
Jeffrey A. Cohen, MD (Cleveland Clinic) Dr. Cohen has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving as a Consultant for Convelo. Dr. Cohen has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for EMD Serono. Dr. Cohen has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Astoria. Dr. Cohen has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Bristol Myers Squibb. Dr. Cohen has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for FiND. Dr. Cohen has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for INMune. Dr. Cohen has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Sandoz. Dr. Cohen has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Celltrion. Dr. Cohen has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as an Editor, Associate Editor, or Editorial Advisory Board Member for Sage.
Derrick Robertson, MD Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving as a Consultant for Alexion. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving as a Consultant for Biogen. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving as a Consultant for Bristol Myers Squibb. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving as a Consultant for EMD Serono. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving as a Consultant for Genentech. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving as a Consultant for Greenwich Biosciences. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving as a Consultant for Horizon. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving as a Consultant for Janssen. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving as a Consultant for Novartis. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving as a Consultant for Sanofi Genzyme. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving as a Consultant for TG Therapeutics. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Mallinckrodt. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for Alexion. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $50,000-$99,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for Biogen. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for Bristol Myers Squibb. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for EMD Serono. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $50,000-$99,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for Genentech. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for Sanofi Genzyme. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for PRIME CME. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for Janssen. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for Horizon. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for TG Therapeutics. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving as an Expert Witness for McVeigh. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as an Expert Witness for Mccumber. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving as an Expert Witness for Goodis. The institution of Dr. Robertson has received research support from Biogen. The institution of Dr. Robertson has received research support from EMD Serono. The institution of Dr. Robertson has received research support from Jansenn. The institution of Dr. Robertson has received research support from Genentech. The institution of Dr. Robertson has received research support from Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute. The institution of Dr. Robertson has received research support from Novartis. The institution of Dr. Robertson has received research support from Sanofi Genzyme. The institution of Dr. Robertson has received research support from TG Therapeutics. The institution of Dr. Robertson has received research support from Prime. The institution of Dr. Robertson has received research support from Greenwich Biosciences. The institution of Dr. Robertson has received research support from Atara Biotherapeutics. The institution of Dr. Robertson has received research support from CorEvitas. The institution of Dr. Robertson has received research support from Anokion. The institution of Dr. Robertson has received research support from UCB Biosciences. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Speaker with Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers. Dr. Robertson has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Speaker with Multiple Sclerosis Association of America.
Carrie M. Hersh, DO, MSc, FAAN (Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health) Dr. Hersh has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Biogen. Dr. Hersh has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Novartis. Dr. Hersh has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Genentech_GN41791. Dr. Hersh has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Genzyme. Dr. Hersh has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for EMD Serono. Dr. Hersh has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Bristol-Myers Squibb . Dr. Hersh has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for TG Therapeutics. Dr. Hersh has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Alexion. Dr. Hersh has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for Biogen. Dr. Hersh has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for Novartis. Dr. Hersh has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Speakers Bureau for Genzyme. The institution of Dr. Hersh has received research support from Biogen. The institution of Dr. Hersh has received research support from Novartis. The institution of Dr. Hersh has received research support from Genentech_GN41791. The institution of Dr. Hersh has received research support from PCORI.
Robert T. Naismith, MD, FAAN (Washington University) Dr. Naismith has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving as a Consultant for Biogen. Dr. Naismith has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving as a Consultant for Bristol Myers Squib. Dr. Naismith has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving as a Consultant for Genentech. Dr. Naismith has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving as a Consultant for Genzyme. Dr. Naismith has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving as a Consultant for Lundbeck. Dr. Naismith has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for TG Therapeutics. Dr. Naismith has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Celltrion. Dr. Naismith has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Alexion. Dr. Naismith has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving as a Consultant for EMD Serono. Dr. Naismith has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Sandoz. Dr. Naismith has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as an Editor, Associate Editor, or Editorial Advisory Board Member for NEJM Journal Watch.
Kumaran Deiva No disclosure on file
Alit Bhatt No disclosure on file
Haoyi Fu (Novartis Pharmaceuticals) No disclosure on file
Ibolya Boer Ibolya Boer has received personal compensation for serving as an employee of Novartis AG.
Sven G. Meuth (Uniklinik Düsseldorf, Klinik für Neurologie) Sven G. Meuth has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving as a Consultant for Merck. Sven G. Meuth has received personal compensation in the range of $10,000-$49,999 for serving as a Consultant for Novartis. Sven G. Meuth has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Almirall. Sven G. Meuth has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Celgene. Sven G. Meuth has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Genzyme. Sven G. Meuth has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Biogen. Sven G. Meuth has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for TEVA. Sven G. Meuth has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Roche.
Anne H. Cross, MD, FAAN (Washington University School of Medicine) Dr. Cross has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving as a Consultant for Biogen. Dr. Cross has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving as a Consultant for EMD Serono. Dr. Cross has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving as a Consultant for Genentech / F. Hoffman la Roche. Dr. Cross has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving as a Consultant for Novartis. Dr. Cross has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving as a Consultant for TG Therapeutics. Dr. Cross has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving as a Consultant for Horizon Pharmaceuticals. Dr. Cross has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Jazz. Dr. Cross has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Janssen . Dr. Cross has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Bristol Myers Squibb . Dr. Cross has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Octave. Dr. Cross has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Novartis. Dr. Cross has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for EMD Serono. Dr. Cross has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Genentech. Dr. Cross has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving as an officer or member of the Board of Directors for Consortium of MS Centers. Dr. Cross has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as an Editor, Associate Editor, or Editorial Advisory Board Member for AAN. The institution of Dr. Cross has received research support from Genentech. Dr. Cross has received intellectual property interests from a discovery or technology relating to health care.
Jutta Gaertner, MD Dr. Gaertner has received personal compensation in the range of $5,000-$9,999 for serving as a Consultant for Novartis. Dr. Gaertner has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Consultant for Merck. Dr. Gaertner has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving on a Scientific Advisory or Data Safety Monitoring board for Novartis. Dr. Gaertner has received personal compensation in the range of $500-$4,999 for serving as a Speaker with Biogen.
Ludwig Kappos, MD, FAAN (RC2NB, University Hospital Basel) The institution of Dr. Kappos has received research support from Bayer. The institution of Dr. Kappos has received research support from Biogen. The institution of Dr. Kappos has received research support from Genentech. The institution of Dr. Kappos has received research support from Genzyme. The institution of Dr. Kappos has received research support from Janssen. The institution of Dr. Kappos has received research support from Merck Serono. The institution of Dr. Kappos has received research support from Minoryx. The institution of Dr. Kappos has received research support from Novartis. The institution of Dr. Kappos has received research support from Roche. The institution of Dr. Kappos has received research support from Sanofi. The institution of Dr. Kappos has received research support from Santhera. The institution of Dr. Kappos has received research support from Swiss MS Society, Swiss National Research Foundation, European Union, Roche Research Foundation, Innosuisse. The institution of Dr. Kappos has received research support from Shionogi. The institution of Dr. Kappos has received research support from Japan Tobacco. The institution of Dr. Kappos has received research support from Auriga Vision AG. The institution of Dr. Kappos has received research support from EMD Serono. The institution of Dr. Kappos has received research support from Glaxo Smith Kline. The institution of Dr. Kappos has received research support from Wellmera AG. The institution of Dr. Kappos has received research support from Eli Lilly (Suisse) SA. The institution of Dr. Kappos has received research support from Bristol Myers Squibb. The institution of Dr. Kappos has received research support from Celltrion Inc. Dr. Kappos has received intellectual property interests from a discovery or technology relating to health care.